This site is about murder by heart attack. It examines two heart attacks which resulted in death. The first victim was Harry Dexter White, and the perpetrator was Tricky Dickie Nixon himself. The second was Johnny Hyde, and the coup de grace was delivered by none other than Marilyn Monroe during a period when Ronald Regan was president of the Screen Actors Guild. The writer acknowledges the possibility of coincidence at the outset. That is, even though there was an obvious motive to kill and the timing of the heart attacks is at the very least suggestive, it is possible that the two heart attacks were not the result of any of the well-timed acts which no doubt could have caused them. Post hoc ergo propter hoc - Latin for “B followed A therefore A caused B.”- is not a rule of law. This would seem to be especially relevant due to the fact that both White and Hyde had a history of heart problems. However, the fact that B followed A is properly considered as evidence that A caused B, at least when cause is a theoretical possibility. Moreover, even assuming the heart attacks were coincidental, a strong case can be made for the crime of attempted murder (by heart attack).

Harry Dexter White

The follopwing material on Harry Dexter White assumes arguendo that relations between the Soviet Union and the United States were as they appeared to be.

Harry Dexter White has been called a study in paradox. 1 The so-called paradox is easily resolved. The most basic facts are as follows. Harry Dexter White was born in Boston Massachusetts in 1892. He was Jewish. He enlisted in the United States Army, achieved the rank of lieutenant, and was stationed in France during World War I as a non-combatant. He returned stateside after the war, and enrolled in Columbia University to study government. He left Columbia for Stanford in 1923, from where he graduated Phi Beta Kappa in October 1924. In 1933, he completed the requirements at Harvard to get his PhD. His dissertation won a Harvard award and was later published under the title The French International Accounts 1880 - 1913 (called by Stell "the great era of laissez-faire in world economic history"). Upon graduation, he bounced around from professorship to professorship until June 7, 1934 when he received a letter from Joseph Viner, who was then advising Morgenthau, which invited him to come to DC to assist in studying "US monetary and banking legislation and institutions ... with a view to planning a long term legislative program for the administration." 2 White accepted the invitation, and began a twelve year stint with the United States Treasury serving in various capacities.

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White became a top advisor to Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr. He is credited with having dominated the Bretton Woods Conference which resulted in the formation of two seriously non-Communist institutions: the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. He is also credited with supporting attorney for the Treasury Randolph Paul’s proposal for collecting taxes at the source - i.e., income tax withholding. Seriously non-communist actions notwithstanding, White was accused of being a Soviet spy by both Elizabeth Bentley and Whittaker Chambers. White requested to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee, opened his testimony with a stirring speech about freedom, denied being a communist, let alone a spy, and denied having ever met Whittaker Chambers. White, who had a history of heart trouble, had a heart attack shortly after he finished testifying, and then another the next day. Three days later he died. These are some basic facts, and nobody disputes them.

It is clear that White had no fear of being labeled a communist. He requested to testify before HUAC - he was not forced to do so. Moreover, if the accreditations regarding his being the architect of both the IMF and the World Bank are correct, there is no way he was a communist. See the fact that the Soviet Union never ratified the Articles of Agreement for the IMF and World Bank signed at Bretton Woods. It is thus certain that White was not a communist. Withholding income tax at the source gave the United States government control over the purse strings, and thus control over the population. Unless he subsequently advocated repeal of the practice, we can be doubly certain that he was no Communist. This is where it starts to get interesting, because there was a substantial amount of evidence that White was a communist.

Some of this evidence was as follows. There were two witnesses who testified that White was a communist. One was Whittaker Chambers, the other was Elizabeth Bentley. The Venona Decrypts corroborate a lot of what they said. Chambers said his handler told him to buy a Bokhara Rug for White - White possessed a Bokhara Rug. 3 He wrote an uunpublished essay which contains arguably sympathetic views toward Soviets. 4 He stated publicly that Russia was the first instance of a socialist economy, and that it worked. 5 He was against excluding countries such as Russia from global economic system due to its socialist economy. 6 He hoped to go to Moscow. 7 Amusingly, a carpenter with the same name as White - that’s right, Harry Dexter White - mistakenly received caviar and vodka along with an invitation to attend a social event at the Soviet embassy. 8 This litany is not intended to be exhaustive. There was a boatload of evidence tending to show that White was indeed a Soviet spy.

So now we have our “study in paradox.” Harry Dexter White was obviously a devout capitalist, but there was certainly substantial evidence of both sympathy for the Soviets as well as espionage on their behalf. How can this apparent paradox be resolved? The solution is easy. All that is required is to have a grasp of the big picture. The most important part of the big picture includes some truly remarkable things about communism in America, the amount of publicity given the HUAC hearings, and the absolutely impeccable timing of the hearings with their attendant publicity vis-à-vis the Taft-Hartley amendments to the National Labor Relations Act, as well as Congress’s failure to repeal wartime tax provisions.

The first truly remarkable thing about communism in America was how well educated and accordingly how upwardly mobile many of the communist leaders in America were. Look at members of the so-called Ware group. All of the original eight members - John Abt, Henry Collins, Alger Hiss, Victor Perlo, Lee Pressman, Nathaniel Weyl, and Nathan Witt - had college degrees. 9 In fact, Hiss, Pressman, and Witt all had law degrees from Harvard, and Collins graduated from its School of Business. Look at John Reed, the journalist immortalized in the movie Reds. His grandfather owned the water utility in Portland, Oregon, and owned the biggest house in the city. He often was “shaken down” for his “milk money” by the working class kids of the neighborhood through which he had to walk to get to and from school. He, too, graduated from Harvard. He was certainly a very unlikely communist on the surface. To whatever extent humans act in such a manner so as to maximize their own self-interest, these guys are all anomalies. One might even humorously regard Harvard Law School as a communist front. Note at this point that history demonstrates that Harvard is no stranger to political game, and has even maintained that the Native Americans were descended from the lost tribes of Israel in its past.

The second truly remarkable thing about communism in America was how inimical some of the purportedly communist leaders’ actions were to any possibility of success. John Reed was helped divide the Socialist Party of America - twice. Wasn’t it Julius Caesar who said “divide and conquer”? Secondly, consider the decision made by the leaders of the Communist Party of America to advocate the forcible overthrow of the United States government. This decision hurt them in at least three ways. It removed the CPA from the protection of the First Amendment, at least temporarily. 10 Furthermore, it targeted lackeys instead of the money. Moreover, they could easily have used the concept of patriotism to attack the American bourgeoisie for failing to require that the munitions industry sacrifice its war profits while American workers were sacrificing their lives. Finally, consider the actions of Big Bill Haywood. He was secretary for the International Workers of the World, who were known as the Wobblies due to the fact that Haywood was often drunk when he spoke publicly. His advocacy of violence during labor disputes provided the excuse to declare martial law and suspend the protection of the constitution for the strikers. Bad strategy, to say the least. Furthermore, it would have removed the strikers from the protection of the First Amendment even without the declaration of martial law. 11 With friends like these guys, it’s not clear that American communism needed any enemies!

The third truly remarkable thing about communism in America is how many purported communists flipped. That is to say, not just became non-communists but rather anticommunists. In the words of one author, “The American Communist Party and its fronts became schools for anticommunists whose graduates would add their bitter experience in the Communist movement to the well-informed and articulate anticommunism that was already a powerful force ….” 12 This was particularly true of the CPA’s League of Professional Groups, from which some prominent intellectuals departed to launch careers as anticommunists. 13 Emma Goldman, perhaps America’s most prominent radical of her time, wrote in 1917 that she had “set [her] face toward the red glow on the social horizon; after all that is the only worthwhile and real love.” Five years later, she wrote My Disillusionment in Russia five years later. Louise Bryant, Jack Reed’s paramour, returned from Russia and accepted employment with William Randolph Hearst. Writing for the New York American, her articles have been described as "sober and at times unsparing, in contrast to her often rapturous reporting in her 1918 stories." 14 There is no better example than Whittaker Chambers, who not only claimed to be a communist, but also a Soviet spy. This is just a very small sampling.

The fourth truly remarkable thing about communism in America is that most of those who were allegedly spies not only did people not go to jail, few even got charged. Furthermore, most of them lived quite well afterward. For example, HUAC records, the KGB archives and the Venona decrypts seem to prove very convincingly that Nathan Gregory Silvermaster was a Communist and an accomplished espionage agent.” 15 Indeed, according to the KGB, the Silvermaster apparatus conveyed more than 386 important U.S. government documents to the Kremlin in 1944. However, neither Lauchlin Currie, nor Irving Kaplan, nor William Ludwig Ullman, all members of the Silverman apparatus, were ever charged. The same was true with regard to all of the members of the Ware group. Even Algier Hiss was never prosecuted for espionage - only perjury. Again, this is just a sampling. The sum of money spent by HUAC to investigate makes this truly remarkable thing still more remarkable.

The fifth truly remarkable thing about communism in America is that, at least according to the United States government, there was no counterintelligence program to combat Soviet espionage at this point. This absence is said to have persisted until the origin of COINTELPRO (an acronym for counterintelligence program), a program begun by the FBI in 1956 to disrupt the activities of the Communist Party of the United States. According to one author, “In the early 1930s American counterintelligence scarcely existed. There was virtually no surveillance of known or suspected Communists.” 16 This claim is inherently unbelievable. Furthermore, there are some good reasons to lie about its existence. Spying on one’s own citizens, even if constitutionally permissible, does not square all that well with the concepts of secret ballot, the fourth amendment, or freedom in general. Plus, as we shall see, Harry Dexter White died early in the game, and they could not permit belief that White was a honey pot, or whatever.

To recap, we have five truly remarkable things about communism in America thus far: how well educated and accordingly how upwardly mobile many of the communist leaders in America were ; how inimical some of the purportedly communist leaders’ actions were to any possibility of success; how many purported communists flipped; most of those who were allegedly spies not only did people not go to jail, few even got charged; and there was no counterintelligence program to combat Soviet espionage at this point. What result does consideration of all the five above-listed truly remarkable things about American communism yield? It seems inescapable that at least some of these purported communists were not really communists but rather were agents of the United States government. Furthermore, it also appears that they were part of the strategy of labeling the New Deal as communist-influenced so as to justify rescinding it after the war was over and there was a greatly decreased need to economically induce willingness to fight on the part of the worker.

Now let’s move from the general to specific. Whittaker Chambers, of course, was HUAC’s star witness. Chambers wrote a book entitled, seemingly appropriately enough, Witness. In that book, he wrote that he joined the party in the Spring of 1925. 17 Very strangely, he also wrote that his visit to his brother’s grave resulted in his becoming a true communist. In his words, “I was already a member of the Communist Party. I now first became a Communist. 18 This oddity permits the inference that he was observed doing or saying (or writing) something that did not square with him being a communist after he joined. His “private” conversion to true communism would have a tendency to explain. My opinion is that it sticks out worse than a sore thumb. Another serious anomaly with regard to Chambers is that the Soviets did not recall any of their alleged spies after Chambers supposedly broke with communism. If he had truly been a spy, the chance that he would “burn” his contacts should have been a source of grave concern. Whittaker Chambers thus bolsters the strength of the assertion that some of HUAC’s purported communists were not really communists but instead agents of the United States government.

Maybe the most remarkable thing about communism in America was that these guys really were, as Oliver Wendell Holmes said in Whitney v. California, “puny little anonymities.” The starting point here is actually the Socialist Party of America, led by Eugene Debs. Debs ran for President five times. In 1912, he got six percent of the popular vote. By 1920, the Socialist Party had dwindled to barely over 30,000. 19 In that year, he was nevertheless able to get three and four tenths percent of the vote, even though he was incarcerated. The reason for the decline was threefold. First is that the Socialist Party purged itself of its members from Michigan, Massachusetts, and Ohio, as well as those from Eastern Europe. Secondly, the Palmer raids are given a lot of the credit. 20 Finally, and this is the important part for this site, in 1919, the Socialist Party was split in three. The first split resulted in the Socialist Party’s leftist members forming their own separate party - the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA). This party was soon splintered into two when most of the native English speaking members of the CPUSA formed the Communist Labor Party of America. By December of 1920, the total membership of the CPUSA and the CLPA was a mere 5,700. 21 Most of the members of the two communist parties ultimately reunited. In 1928, its membership numbered just under 25,000 members. However, after Stalin’s “socialism in one country philosophy became known, membership once again dwindled to a mere 6,000 members. It did not die. By 1938, membership had increased dramatically (75,000), only to dwindle once again after the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Membership peaked in 1944 at approximately 80,000. They never even hit 100,000! So why all the fuss?

Two legislative acts loom very, very large here. First is the fact that, unlike after World War I, the law which provided for the collection of taxes at the source - i.e., income tax withholding - was never repealed. One would have thought that the measure necessitated by war would be repealed after the war ceased, but no. An excuse was needed to continue the wartime practice in the absence of war. Since the Soviets provided the needed excuse, anybody who objected to the continuation of what was supposed to be a wartime measure ran a serious risk of being labeled “red.” The second legislative act which loomed very, very large was the Taft-Hartley Act, especially 29 U.S.C. 158(b)(4)(A)’s - 29 U.S.C. 158(b)(4)(B)’s proscription of the secondary boycott. This is, in fact, America’s sacred cow, and it is plainly unconstitutional. 22 Those who objected meaningfully ran a very high risk of being labeled “red.” 23 This was especially true due to the fact that Lee Pressman, then labor lawyer for the CIO, wrote a memorandum criticizing the Taft-Hartley Act which Harry Truman used to justify his veto. One of the act’s sponsors, Robert Taft, accused Truman of following Pressman’s memorandum, and his accusation was well-publicized. Pressman subsequently confessed to being a member of the Ware group.

White certainly did not have to worry about being labeled a communist, much less a Soviet spy. Whatever the truth was - and I think what follows was the truth - all White had to say that his actions at the Bretton Woods Conference and his support of the income tax withholding act demonstrated the exact opposite of him being a communist. He would have acknowledged that there was evidence against him that did point to him being both a communist and a Soviet spy, but truthfully explained it away by saying that he was an agent for Uncle Sam pretending to be a communist and a spy so that people who really did entertain communist sympathies would flock to him instead of somebody unknown and really inclined toward subversion. He could have explained that the accusations against him were part of a publicity campaign that attempted to portray communism in America as a real threat and then associate the concept of the secondary boycott with communism. He could have attributed his disapproval of the continued operation of the income tax withholding act as an additional motive behind his being knowingly falsely accused.

Attributing government animosity to his position on the withholding act would have been easy and convincing. Consider the following timeline. First, both Bentley and Chambers accused White of being a spy; second, on Dec 4, 1945, FBI sent the White House a report concerning Soviet Espionage in the US; third, on January 23, 1946, Truman nominated White as U.S. Director of the International Monetary Fund, even though he’d been informed by the FBI that White was suspected of espionage. Odd, to say the least. A ready explanation is that White was making noises about the non-repeal of the withholding act, which was something within his purview as an agent of the Treasury, so they kicked him upstairs to a position that had nothing to do with the withholding act.

It is clear that had White ever been prosecuted, he would have hurt the government a lot more then it would have hurt him. So, if White was not a communist and wasn’t at all worried about being labeled a communist, then what was he afraid of, afraid enough to have a heart attack?

His opening statement was noteworthy. Here is a sampling:

I should like to state at the start that I am not now and never have been a Communist, nor even close to becoming one, that I cannot recollect ever knowing either a Miss Bentley or a Mr. Whittaker Chambers ….
The principles in which I believe, and by which I live, make it impossible for me to ever do a disloyal act or anything against the interests of our country ….
My creed is the American creed. I believe in freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of thought, freedom of the press, freedom of criticism, and freedom of movement. I believe in the goal of equal opportunity ….
I believe in the right and the duty of every citizen to work for, to expect, and to obtain an increasing measure of political, economic, and emotional security for all. I am opposed to discrimination in any form ….
I consider these principles sacred. I regard them as the basic fabric of our American way of life, and I believe in them as living realities, and not as mere words on paper.
This is my creed ….

When White finished, the gallery burst into applause.24

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Now it gets especially interesting. At the outset, White asked for a break after every hour of testimony due to his heart condition. The committee agreed. The committeemen, as one might expect, inquired as to whether White was acquainted with Chambers. White responded, “To the best of my recollection, I remember no such name.” He did, however, admit to playing ping-pong with Nathan Gregory Silvermaster in Silvermaster’s basement. (Silvermaster was also identified by Chambers as a Soviet agent.) At this point, J. Parnell Thomas, HUAC Chairman and subsequently convicted felon, remarked, “For a person who had a severe heart condition, you certainly can play a lot of sports.” White pointed out that he had suffered the heart attack only one year previously, while the ping-pong was played many years previously. Then, in typically type-A fashion, White said, “I hope that clears that up, Mr. Chairman.” 25It is difficult to believe that the HUAC committee, including Thomas, was unaware of White’s heart condition, given he had suffered a heart attack while on an IMF mission in Ecuador and resigned his post due to poor health. Furthermore, it is also difficult to believe that the FBI did not make note of it in its reports to Truman. That the committee knew about White’s heart condition can thus be regarded as established. It follows that Thomas’ remark was an attempt to feign ignorance and disbelief.

Enter Richard Milhous Nixon, HUAC’s youngest member. To reiterate, it cannot be gainsaid that Nixon knew both that White had a bad ticker and that White was no communist. He tried to get White to categorically deny that he had ever met Chambers, and was able to badger White into saying several times (that makes it badgering) that he could not recollect having met Chambers. 26The problem for White was that, in addition to the testimony of Chambers, he and Chambers were enrolled in Columbia University at the same time and he and Chambers lived in close proximity to each other when they lived in New York. Any neutral evaluation of these facts results in the conclusion that the two had met before, and that White was either mistaken or lying. So why would White ever lie, given that he told the truth about Silvermaster and he was certainly no communist?

Regardless of what the truth was, it is clear that Chambers was given a reputation for being homosexual. He was rumored to have fooled with his brother in their youths, a rumor that Chambers categorically denied. 27 He was rumored to have been sexually involved with “Bub” Bang, a rumor that both subsequently denied. 28 At one point, his living arrangement was such that one of his acquaintances accused him of “living in a sea of shit.” 29 Here is what Chambers himself said:

And since I was more or less “footloose and fancy free” I took him to a hotel, the name of which I cannot now recall. During the course of our stay at the hotel that night I had my first homosexual experience. It was a revelation to me. As a matter of fact it set off a chain reaction in me which was almost impossible to control. I do not know the identity of the young man I spoke of, nor does he know my true identity. I have never seen him since the first night I met him.
Since that time … I engaged in numerous homosexual activities both in New York and Washington, D.C.
… after a while the desire became greater and I actively sought out opportunities for homosexual relationships.

According to Chambers, he broke with homosexuality when he broke with communism. Interestingly, Chambers did not make this revelation until during the pendency of the Hiss case a year later. 30

Being labeled a homosexual was very serious business in the late 1940s and throughout the 1950s. At that time it was a mental illness, and an epoch known as the “Lavender Scare” would soon follow. Indeed, under Ike, one could not be employed by the federal government if one was homosexual. According to one author:

The so-called 'Red Scare' has been the main focus of most historians of that period of time. A lesser-known element ... and one that harmed far more people was the witch-hunt McCarthy and others conducted against homosexuals. 31

Over five thousand federal employees lost their jobs during this epoch. Now here we have a motive for White to lie about never having met Chambers. White was an intelligent man, and would easily have figured out how his denial could be made to appear. Not coincidentally, White experienced chest pains shortly after finishing his testimony, and suffered a severe heart attack two days later, and then died the next day, three days after his testimony. White was confident about being able to demonstrate he was not a communist, but after seemingly lying, way less so about being a homosexual.

Nixon, as well as the entire HUAC, knew White was not a communist. Nixon, as well as the entire HUAC, knew White had a heart condition. The Chairman’s comment is easily construed as an attempt on the part of the committee to disclaim this knowledge so as to avoid any inference that they intentionally caused White’s death. That is exactly what the entire HUAC did, and I am not the only one who thinks so. “A number” of reporters concluded that the stress on his heart caused by the committee caused his heart attack. 32 The motive was to prevent White and by example stifle others from objecting to the continued operation of the withholding act. Because of it, Americans cannot use threat of non-payment to control congressional spending, especially for munitions. It is at least interesting to note that Nixon is always credited for getting America out of Viet Nam, but never accused of engaging in the maximum expenditure / minimal deterrence strategy that prolonged it for five of the six years that he was commander-in-chief.

Johnny Hyde

The reader should note at the outset that in Hollywood things are not always as they appear to be. The case of Rock Hudson is illustrative. He died of complications with AIDS in 1985. He was gay, and his homosexuality was an open secret in Hollywood. Things were different back then. So different, in fact, that Hudson actually married (a woman) for the purpose of obscuring the fact that he was gay. His orientation was thus unknown by the general public until his death. Until that point, he was widely regarded as a "man's man," having played the lead roles in many movies, not to mention having honorably served in and having been honorably discharged from the U.S. Navy. With regard to Johnny Hyde, the fact that appearances can be deceiving is compounded by the inconsistent accounts surrounding his relationship with Marilyn Monroe. There are important discrepancies with regard to, inter alia, when Hyde and Monroe met, whether Monroe was with Hyde when he died, whether Monroe went to the funeral, and, if so, how she behaved, and how her contract with Fox came about after Hyde's death.

There are, however, many facts about Hyde which are not in dispute. Some basic ones follow. Marilyn Monroe aspired to be an actress. She was willing, at a minimum, to grant sexual favors in order to further this aspiration. Johnny Hyde was a partner with William Morris Agency, a talent agency which procured contracts with various movie studios for actors. He was a Russian Jew who, together with his family, emmigrated to America for economic opportunity, and not to escape persecution. Hyde had serious heart health problems. Monroe met Hyde either in very late 1948 or early 1949. From that point on, they were romantically involved until Hyde's death on December 18, 1950. This involvement occurred notwithstanding the facts that Hyde was thirty-one years older than Monroe and three or four inches shorter. Their involvement occurred during Hollywood's "Red Scare," which meant the possibility of communists and communist sympathizers being blacklisted. At some point before Monroe met Hyde, the Morris Agency began to be mentioned as pink, largely due to its president's association with the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. Hyde predictably died of heart failure. In the two years she was with Hyde, Monroe was unable to secure a contract with any studio, but did appear in five movies. After Hyde's death by heart attack, she was able to secure a contract with Twentieth Century Fox, and appeared in a total of ten movies. There were other improvements in her life.

There are two more facts, not so basic, that are beyond dispute. One is that there are discrepancies with regard to some important facts surrounding Monroe's rise to stardom, as was mentioned earlier. The other is that after Clark Gable died from a heart attack ten years after Hyde, a rumor was started that Monroe was the one responsible.

The mere fact that Monroe was willing to be involved in a relationship with Hyde, without more, is enough to raise a big red flag indicating something is not right. There is no question that Monroe was career driven. Aside from the fact that all of her biographers agree on this point (and their agreement really should not be regarded as conclusive), there is ample evidence to support this assertion. Her ex-husband said, "She had only one thing on her mind - to be a star - and she gave up everything for it." Monroe's involvement with Hyde occurred during the Hollywood component of the Red Scare saga, and Johnny Hyde was at least pink.

To make a long story short, in 1947 HUAC began to investigate whether Communist agents and sympathizers were planting propaganda in Hollywood films. Ronald Reagan, then president of the Screen Actors Guild, had supplied the FBI with names of those he believed were communists and the hearings before HUAC commenced with his statement and testimony. Ten of the witnesses that had been subpoenaed showed up but refused to testify. They became known as the Hollywood Ten, and were eventually cited for contempt of Congress. 33 The day after the Hollywood Ten were cited for contempt of Congress, the Association of Motion Picture Producers issued a statement now known as the Waldorf statement, 34 which contained the clause, "[W]e will invite the Hollywood talent guilds to work with us to eliminate any subversives."

It is not difficult to consider this activity as an implicit attack on the William Morris agency. Johnny Hyde was a Russia- born Jew whose family came to America not because of political (or religious) persecution, but rather for professional opportunity. William Morris, Jr., the agency's president, was the son of a German Jew that did not come to America to avoid persecution, but rather came with the rest of his family to join his father and uncle after his uncle had been apprehended for bootlegging vodka from Poland to Germany. 35 Walter A. Steele named William Morris, Jr. as part of the "Red Menace" due to Morris' position as a director of the Independent Citizen's Committee for the Arts, Sciences, and Professions (ICCASP) and his affiliation with the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. Seemingly strangely enough, neither Hyde's name nor Morris' name ever appeared on an official blacklist. However, it seems that Johnny Hyde began to have a lot more difficulty getting his clients signed for movie roles than he had ever experienced before. One biographer came right out and said so with respect to Monroe. 36 According to another, Hyde's difficulty with his clients was due to his acting as though Monroe was his only client.37

The bottom line is that Monroe appeared in a total of five (or six - there is even some discrepancy about that) movies during the two years she was involved with Hyde. None of her parts were all that noteworthy, although Monroe's biographers are able always to find a favorable review of her performances. Furthermore, it is at best questionable whether Hyde's influence was responsible for procuring her roles. According to Spoto, her appearance in Love Happy (a cameo role) resulted from an introduction of Monroe by Hyde to Lester Cowan, the independent producer. 38 According to Guiles, Harry Lipton was responsible for landing her the part. 39 According to both Spoto and Guiles, Monroe's benefactor Lucille Ryman was the party responsible for procuring Monroe's role in The Asphalt Jungle (three brief appearances), not Johnny Hyde. 40 Hyde did procure her a role in The Fireball as a roller derby groupie. His introduction of Monroe to Joseph Mankiewicz resulted in Monroe's appearance in two scenes of All About Eve as "an alluring novice ... not terrifically talented but willing to ingratiate herself to older gentlemen for the sake of her career." 41 Hyde was unable to procure her a contract with any of the studios, something which she'd managed to do twice before she'd met him.

So why did the career-driven Monroe stay with him? It should be noted at this point that Hyde had proposed marriage to Monroe, and she turned him down, saying that "... she loved Johnny but was not in love with him." What does that even mean? It is commonly said that Hyde was the father she never had. The fact that Hyde was over twice her age necessitated an explanation along this line, but it does not hold up. He was also three inches shorter than her, a fact not conducive to the father image. Moreover, he criticized her constantly and was heard to berate her in public. Not exactly fatherly! So what was it about Hyde that she thought would further her career?

Approximately four and one-half months after Hyde's death, Monroe began to work under her new contract with Twentieth Century Fox. The rest is history, and very interesting history at that. It is beyond dispute that she did way better after Hyde's death than at any time before it. So what happened here? Look at the big picture. Hyde was pink, and Hollywood was ostentatiously ferreting out communists and communist sympathizers. There's a motive. Monroe and Hyde made for an extremely unlikely couple, thus giving rise to the inference that her reasons for being with Hyde were suspect. She knew he had heart problems when she began seeing him, and knew they were getting worse while she continued to see him. She had limited success at best before Johnny Hyde died, and became the nation's sex symbol after he died. That looks a lot like reward. It looks like she was working for somebody who had some serious Hollywood clout, and not necessarily somebody from Twentieth Century Fox.

There are at least a couple of other facts that bolster this conclusion. One is that Monroe worked as a prostitute on Hollywood boulevard in 1948. 42 The "official" explanation is that she was broke and needed the money. There is at least one other reason to work the street - to blackmail any john who was susceptible. It would certainly have spiced up any contract negotiations. Even the beloved "Papa Bear" Halas was not above using his players' exploits on Rush Street as leverage during contract negotiations. The second fact that bolsters the conclusion that Monroe was working for somebody is the fact that she went after the Kennedys. She certainly didn't do them any good, even before the rumor mill circulated the stories about an affair or affairs or Monroe crying murder from the grave or whatever.

Two other facts support the conclusion that Monroe knowingly killed Hyde. One is that after Clarke Gable died from his last heart attack, the media was quick to blame Monroe. So doing was absurd. I'm borrowing what somebody else wrote here because it's so good. "Gable was a walking time bomb who spent his life accumulating heart attack risk factors." 43This sort of resembles the situation endured by Hyde. However, nobody says that Gable and Monroe had sex. The basis for the media's (and then Gable's widow's) accusation that Monroe caused the heart attack was that Monroe was habitually late for filming. That's obviously extremely flimsy. One is thus compelled to wonder why the media was so quick to attribute Gable's heart attack to Monroe while it failed to do so with Hyde's. To invite the inference that the reason it didn't was because it wasn't true, otherwise it would have? To induce a mistake on the part of Monroe's detractors to be used to discredit them in the event that they ever levied the same accusation with regard to Hyde?

Another fact that supports the conclusion that Monroe knowingly killed Hyde becomes apparent from any attempt to ascertain who was behind Monroe. As was stated earlier, there are numerous discrepancies surrounding some of the more important aspects of Hyde's relationship with Monroe - so many, in fact, that it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that somebody orchestrated them. (And once again, not necessarily either the biographers or their publishers) Who set up their initial meeting? According to one, it happened in Palm Springs, according to another, it was at a New Year's Eve party thrown by Sam Spiegel. Was Monroe even with Hyde when he died or even shortly before? According to one, yes, Monroe was by his side. According to another, Monroe was in Tijuana when he died. Did Monroe go to Hyde's funeral, and if so, how did she behave? According to Spoto, she attended but stayed apart from the proceedings, and never acted in anything other than a dignified manor throughout. According to Maurice Zolotow, she threw herself on the casket and wailed, "Wake up, please wake up, Oh my God, Johnny, Johnny." According to Rose, when Hyde's nephew saw Monroe at the funeral, he said, "There's the bitch who killed my uncle." 44 When exactly did the contract with Twentieth Century Fox happen? According to Guiles, it was signed in October of 1950, when Hyde was still alive. 45 According to Spoto, it did not become effective until almost five months after Hyde died, and she was represented by Hugh French of the Famous Artists Agency and not by the William Morris Agency for the transaction. 46 Obviously, these discrepancies make it difficult to put any kind of theory together with regard to who Monroe was working for. That's the reason that they exist.



1. David Rees, Harry Dexter White: A Study in Paradox, Coward, McCann, and Geoghegan, 1973.
2. Benn Stell, The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order, Princeton University Press, 2013, p. 21-22.
3. Rees, p. 46-47.
4. Stell, p. 39-43.
5. Stell, p. 137.
6. Stell, p. 136.
7. Stell, p.22.
8. Stell, p. 44-45.
9. John Abt, lawyer who graduated from the University of Chicago; Henry Collins graduated from Princeton University and Harvard Business School; Alger Hiss graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Johns Hopkins University and from Harvard Law School; Victor Perlo received both a B.A and Masters Degree in mathematics from Columbia University; Lee Pressman received a B.A. from Cornell and a law degree from Harvard; Nathaniel Weyl received a B.S. from Columbia College of Columbia University; and Nathan Witt received a law degree from Harvard Law School.
10. See Dennis v. United States (341 U.S. 494).
11. See
12. Richard Gid Powers(RGP), Not Without Honor : The History of American Anticommunism, Free Press, 1995, p. 93.
13. RGP, p. 104.
14. Virginia Gardner, Friend and Lover: The Life of Louise Bryant, Horizon Press, 1982, p. 222.
15. See, e.g., R. Bruce Craig, Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case, University Press of Kansas, 2004, p. 109.
16. Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers, Random House, 1997, p. 83.
17. Whittaker Chambers, Witness, Regnary Publishing, Inc., 2002, p. 201-207.
18. Id., 187.
19. RGP, p. 38-39.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. See
23. John V. Fleming, The Anti-Communist Manifesto: Four Books that Shaped the Cold War, W. W. Norton and Company, 2009, p. 285 - “attacks on Stalinism must have either the intended goal or the unintended result of discrediting all progressive thought, socialism, “the workers”, or some other target”
24. Craig, p. 326.
25. Craig, p. 327.
26. Ibid.
27. Chambers, p. 723.
28. Tanenhaus, p. 40-41.
29. Id., p. 65.
30. Id., p. 344-45.
31. Rodger E McDaniel, Alan K Simpson, Dying for Joe McCarthy's Sins: The Suicide of Wyoming Senator Lester Hunt, WordsWorth Press, 2013, p. x.
32. Craig, p. 7.
33. Alvah Bessie, screenwriter Herbert Biberman, screenwriter and director, Lester Cole, screenwriter, Edward Dmytryk, director, Ring Lardner Jr., screenwriter, John Howard Lawson, screenwriter, Albert Maltz, screenwriter, Samuel Ornitz, screenwriter, Adrian Scott, producer and screenwriter, Dalton Trumbo, screenwriter - some of these guys did very well after their ordeal.
34. "Members of the Association of Motion Picture Producers deplore the action of the 10 Hollywood men who have been cited for contempt by the House of Representatives. We do not desire to prejudge their legal rights, but their actions have been a disservice to their employers and have impaired their usefulness to the industry.
We will forthwith discharge or suspend without compensation those in our employ, and we will not re-employ any of the 10 until such time as he is acquitted or has purged himself of contempt and declares under oath that he is not a Communist.
On the broader issue of alleged subversive and disloyal elements in Hollywood, our members are likewise prepared to take positive action.
We will not knowingly employ a Communist or a member of any party or group which advocates the overthrow of the government of the United States by force or by any illegal or unconstitutional methods.
In pursuing this policy, we are not going to be swayed by hysteria or intimidation from any source. We are frank to recognize that such a policy involves danger and risks. There is the danger of hurting innocent people. There is the risk of creating an atmosphere of fear. Creative work at its best cannot be carried on in an atmosphere of fear. We will guard against this danger, this risk, this fear.
To this end we will invite the Hollywood talent guilds to work with us to eliminate any subversives: to protect the innocent; and to safeguard free speech and a free screen wherever threatened.
The absence of a national policy, established by Congress, with respect to the employment of Communists in private industry makes our task difficult. Ours is a nation of laws. We request Congress to enact legislation to assist American industry to rid itself of subversive, disloyal elements.
Nothing subversive or un-American has appeared on the screen, nor can any number of Hollywood investigations obscure the patriotic services of the 30,000 loyal Americans employed in Hollywood who have given our government invaluable aid to war and peace."
35. Frank Rose, The Agency, Harper Business, 1995, p. 18.
36. Id., p. 132.
37. Donald Spoto, Marilyn Monroe: The Biography, Cooper Square Press, 1993, p. 170.
38. Spoto, p. 148.
39. Fred Lawrence Guiles, Legend: The Life and Death of Marilyn Monroe, Stein and Day, 1984, p. 141-42.
40. Spoto, p. 160-61; Guiles, p. 153-54.
41. Spoto, p. 168.
42. See Spoto, p. 127-28.
43. He smoked at least three packs of cigarettes and/or two pipes of tobacco a day. His lungs were so damaged by his smoking that he rattled when he talked. - He drank way too much. Binge drinking, in particular, damages the heart muscle and arteries to markedly increase heart attack risk. - He was often overweight and would go on crash diets for movie roles. For his last picture, The Misfits, he went from more than 235 pounds to 190 lbs. Every time he lost weight, he lost fat and muscle, including heart muscle. Every time he regained weight, he gained only fat, so at the same weight, he would be much fatter and have a weaker heart than he had before the diet. Fat in the liver and muscles blocks insulin receptors to increase risk for diabetes and heart attacks. - He exercised too little. It is incredible that a film star whose fame was based on his masculinity had such small muscles and did not exercise. - His typical meat-heavy diet would block insulin receptors to increase risk for diabetes and heart attacks. In 1933, he had his gall bladder removed, the result of a fatty liver and weight gain. - He had too many sexual partners which exposed him to infections that cause inflammation that increases risk for heart attacks. Inflammation causes small holes to form in the inner lining of arteries because a person's immunity, which is supposed to attack germs, instead attacks his own body, including the inner lining of arteries. Then the raw areas bleed and clot and a plaque starts to form. This can be the first step in the progression toward a heart attack. Then his overactive immunity probably caused plaques to break off from his heart arteries to cause his several heart attacks.
44. Rose, p. 151 - was this even colloquial back then?
45. Guiles, p. 169.
46. Spoto, p. 182.